- pv modules
The high efficiency offered by tandem PV contributes to reducing overall PV electricity generation costs, and is important to reduce the area required for PV power generation. Both aspects support the transition to a society using primarily renewable energy.
A tandem solar panel consists of two solar cells on top of each other. In this case the top cell, a so-called perovskite cell, transmits the red light to the bottom silicon solar cell. The silicon bottom cell can be of the bifacial type, which means that it can also convert the diffuse light that falls on the rear of the panel to electricity. The 4- and 2-terminal indicates whether the top and bottom cell deliver solar power separately or that, like the batteries in a flash light, the two cells are also electrically stacked.
The international technology roadmap for photovoltaics (ITRPV) foresees that tandem PV based on crystalline silicon (c-Si) will make rapid progress towards industrial implementation, and will have obtained a significant market share by 2025. Because of the limited available area for ground PV installation and importance of rooftop PV, tandem PV is very suitable for the Netherlands.
Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite thin film solar cells are the primary candidate technology to be paired with c-Si to construct the tandem, while other candidates are also under investigation. Within the Solliance cooperation TNO executes an industrial research program on perovskite PV technology. TNO, together with academic and industrial partners, combines the perovskite thin film technology with c-Si technology to create tandem solar cells and modules. So far, an efficiency gain of 5 percentage points over typical industrial c-Si cells was achieved. In addition, a power density of over 30 mW/cm2 (300W/m2) have been demonstrated with bifacial PV tandem cells. TNO began scaled-up module outdoor tests in 2018 and also looks into fully thin-film-based PV tandem technologies, such as perovskite combined with CIGS or perovskite-perovskite tandem.
Based on its know-how spanning the entire production chain from silicon wafers to solar cell and to PV system, TNO can provide support and cooperation on topics such as:
Please contact Gianluca Coletti for more on PV Tandem Technology and its application ›