TNO is specialised in contamination control for EUV lithography. For 20 years, TNO has been the preferred partner of ASML and Carl Zeiss in the development of modules, test equipment and strategies related to contamination control for EUV lithography equipment. TNO extended its unique infrastructure for contamination control R&D, including surface analysis equipment and gas & vacuum facilities, using its own (second) EUV beam line. A unique facility that became operational in 2018 and is used for research on materials, such as optics, reticles and pellicles, for all players in the EUV lithography field: material suppliers, end users (IDMs) and equipment developers (OEMs). TNO’s flow and thermal control specialists have over 10 years of experience in two-phase flow control for the most demanding application: immersion lithography.