Earth Observation

Earth Observation is the use of satellite instruments to image our planet. TNO has a long legacy in developing instruments that monitor our planet’s atmosphere and allow us to mitigate the harmful impact of greenhouse gases and air pollution. In addition to this, we work on systems that monitor land and water and the calibration of a wider range of optical satellite instruments.

For more information about our activities on Earth Observation

Contact Andy Court


With a flight heritage of more than 35 years, TNO has a proven track record in building space instruments and components for ESA and NASA missions, and delivering breakthrough technologies and components that include spectrometers for earth observation. Dozens of satellites are equipped with systems that have been designed, built and tested by TNO. Our climatological models, which combine ground-based and space measurements, are used on a daily basis by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). Through these activities, TNO helps to improve the quality of life on earth.


Copernicus Sentinel 5P – TROPOMI integration at TNO

TNO develops optical instruments for earth observation that provide global, independent measurements of air quality and greenhouse gases. Over the past 20 years, we have developed and realised optical systems that lie at the heart of well-known instruments used by international space agencies, such as GOME (ESA), SCIAMACHY (ESA/ ENVISAT) and OMI (NASA Aura). The most recent example of this is TROPOMI (NSO/ ESA). This instrument became operational in 2017 and provides daily global measurements at a unique, high spatial resolution of 3.5 x 5 km2. TNO is currently involved in the development of the ESA/EC Sentinel 5. Utilising data from instruments such as TROPOMI, policymakers and industry can be provided with actionable information on emission reductions. In addition to this, TNO utilises its strong experience and technological position to design earth observation instruments and systems for monitoring water and land. A recent trend in earth observation is the increasing use of miniaturised instruments on small satellites, for which TNO offers innovative solutions.


Vacuum Calibration Facility (VCF)

TNO provides world-class calibration technologies, ranging from on-board calibration hardware for space instruments to the on-ground calibration of components (MERIS diffusers) or complete instruments (SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2). We own unique facilities for calibration, such as the Absolute Radiometric Calibration Facility (ARCF) for diffuser measurements, the Vacuum Calibration Facility (VCF) and the soon-to-be-opened Calibration of Space Instruments (CSI) facility with two dedicated Thermal Vacuum Chambers.

Our work

Small sats

TNO is developing technology for use in small satellites (SmallSats) that can offer tangible solutions to societal problems. Here, we are focusing on small, affordable earth observation instruments that... Read more
Our work

Satellite Data Utilisation

Satellite data utilisation is essential to unlocking the value of earth observation (EO). TNO develops innovative space data utilisation systems that provide people, governments and industry with a clear... Read more
Our work


The satellite instrument TROPOMI is the most sophisticated and accurate instrument ever to carry out measurements from space for the purposes of climate and air pollution research. TROPOMI has been conceived... Read more
Our work

Space instrument calibration

Calibration is an essential part of a space instrument. Without calibration the data from the instrument cannot be interpreted and science is not possible. TNO has a leading position in providing calibration... Read more
Space & Scientific Instrumentation

Dr. Andy Court

  • Space
  • Earth Observation
  • Business Development


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